Posts Tagged ‘China’

World War 2.5

Sunday, January 26th, 2014

UPDATE: I don’t seem to be the only one worried about a 1914 situation.

China’s current coercion of Japan over the islands is but a symptom of a larger illness in the international system. China has been leveraging its naval modernization to increase its movements through the seas and choke points surrounding Japan to break out into the Pacific. Last November, for example, flotillas of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy destroyers and submarines backed by air power encircled Japan for the first time, as PLA officers bragged about splitting and demolishing the first island chain. China is changing the regional balance with little resistance from the United States. Counter to Chinese public claims of surprise at a U.S. “overreaction,” recent discussions with Chinese officials over Beijing’s December air defense identification zone announcement suggests that the United States’ response was much weaker than the response the Chinese leadership had expected.

This is worrisome.

Last month I posted an observation that another world war may be coming. I noted that this summer is the 100th anniversary of the First World War and that the present situation is similar to that which preceded the 1914 war. I may not be the only one.

I concluded last month’s post as follows: The “two Ps” are Pakistan and the Palestinians. We live in an incredibly dangerous era and we are seeing an American president who does not understand geopolitics. God help us.

screen shot 2014-01-22 at 9.29.47 am

A recent column provided from someone attending the Davos Economic Forum discusses yet another potential fuse that is sputtering.

During the dinner, the hosts passed a microphone around the table and asked guests to speak briefly about something that they thought would interest the group.

One of the guests, an influential Chinese professional, talked about the simmering conflict between China and Japan over a group of tiny islands in the Pacific.

We live in an era in which the US elites are largely ignorant of history and of other peoples. In the 1930s, President Roosevelt had spent summers bicycling around Europe before he suffered the attack of Polio in 1920. President Eisenhower had, of court, commanded the armies in World War II. He knew intimately most of the people who mattered in the world. We now have a president who does not know how little he knows about the world. He thinks a few years as a child in Indonesia make him a expert in international relations. His inner circle describes him as the smartest man ever to become president.

There is little evidence to support it. Mr. Obama went to Harvard, but so did George W. Bush, who some liberals consider dumber than dirt. The president won’t release his transcripts, so we can’t judge by his grades. Mr. Obama was president of the Harvard Law Review, but when he was selected, popularity mattered more than scholarship.

Mr. Obama joined an undistinguished law firm, where he tried no cases. So no help there.

Many cite the president’s oratorical skills, but he often rambles when he speaks without a teleprompter. That’s because his brain “is moving so fast that the mouth can’t keep up,” wrote Meghan Daum of the Los Angeles Times.

Most telling is the following exchange:

Barack Obama is the smartest man with the highest IQ ever to be elected to the presidency, historian Michael Beschloss told radio talk show host Don Imus in November of 2008.

“So what is his IQ?” Mr. Imus asked. Mr. Beschloss didn’t know. He was just assuming.

We are all guessing but some of us think we know. Obama thinks we need Arabic translators in Afghanistan.

Obama posited — incorrectly — that Arabic translators deployed in Iraq are needed in Afghanistan — forgetting, momentarily, that Afghans don’t speak Arabic.
“We only have a certain number of them and if they are all in Iraq, then its harder for us to use them in Afghanistan,” Obama said.
The vast majority of military translators in both war zones are drawn from the local population.
Naturally they speak the local language. In Iraq, that’s Arabic or Kurdish. In Afghanistan, it’s any of a half dozen other languages — including Pashtu, Dari, and Farsi.

Oh well. That is over and we have new problems.

He then explained that the general sense in China is that China and Japan have never really settled their World War 2 conflict. Japan and America settled their conflict, he explained, and as a result, the fighting stopped. But China and Japan have never really put the war behind them.

The Chinese professional acknowledged that if China asserted control over the disputed islands by attacking Japan, America would have to stand with Japan. And he acknowledged that China did not want to provoke America.

But then he said that many in China believe that China can accomplish its goals — smacking down Japan, demonstrating its military superiority in the region, and establishing full control over the symbolic islands — with a surgical invasion.

Remember that Austria planned to punish Serbia for the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand who was shot by Serbian conspirators. How did that end ? One of the reasons for the appeasement of the 1930s was to avoid a war by mistake.

“Do you realize that those islands are worthless pieces of rock… and you’re seriously suggesting that they’re worth provoking a global military conflict over?”

The Chinese professional said that, yes, he realized that. But then, with conviction that further startled everyone, he said that the islands’ value was symbolic and that their symbolism was extremely important.

Challenged again, the Chinese professional distanced himself from his earlier remarks, saying that he might be “sensationalizing” the issue and that he, personally, was not in favor of a war with Japan. But he still seemed certain that one was deserved.

I wish we had a competent president instead of a narcissistic fool.

Gideon Rachman of the Financial Times tweeted the following about an interview with Shinzo Abe, the Prime Minister of Japan. In case you’ve forgotten, 1914 is when World War 1 started.

Just interviewed Shinzo Abe @Davos. He said China and Japan now are in a “similar situation” to UK and Germany before 1914.

The wisdom of Tom Freidman

Wednesday, January 13th, 2010

Tom Friedman has a column today about China. Interestingly, his theme is that he knows more about the economics of China than a very successful investor.

Reading The Herald Tribune over breakfast in Hong Kong harbor last week, my eye went to the front-page story about how James Chanos — reportedly one of America’s most successful short-sellers, the man who bet that Enron was a fraud and made a fortune when that proved true and its stock collapsed — is now warning that China is “Dubai times 1,000 — or worse” and looking for ways to short that country’s economy before its bubbles burst.

Friedman dismisses this fellow, who made a fortune shorting Enron, and thinks he knows better.

I am reluctant to sell China short, not because I think it has no problems or corruption or bubbles, but because I think it has all those problems in spades — and some will blow up along the way (the most dangerous being pollution). But it also has a political class focused on addressing its real problems, as well as a mountain of savings with which to do so (unlike us).

And here is the other thing to keep in mind. Think about all the hype, all the words, that have been written about China’s economic development since 1979. It’s a lot, right? What if I told you this: “It may be that we haven’t seen anything yet.”

Why do I say that? All the long-term investments that China has made over the last two decades are just blossoming and could really propel the Chinese economy into the 21st-century knowledge age, starting with its massive investment in infrastructure. Ten years ago, China had a lot bridges and roads to nowhere. Well, many of them are now connected. It is also on a crash program of building subways in major cities and high-speed trains to interconnect them. China also now has 400 million Internet users, and 200 million of them have broadband. Check into a motel in any major city and you’ll have broadband access. America has about 80 million broadband users.

He had previously expressed his enthusiasm for China’s political class.

One-party autocracy certainly has its drawbacks. But when it is led by a reasonably enlightened group of people, as China is today, it can also have great advantages. That one party can just impose the politically difficult but critically important policies needed to move a society forward in the 21st century. It is not an accident that China is committed to overtaking us in electric cars, solar power, energy efficiency, batteries, nuclear power and wind power.

Of course, that column was written before the CRU scandal so he is overly impressed with global warming, unlike the Chinese he so admires, but I doubt he has changed his mind. The religion of the left these days is global warming. If only Obama could just dispense with that clumsy democracy we have. Well, he is trying. Others have noticed a plethora of empty buildings and other signs of economic stress.

Some Chinese economists who argue for the merits of a Keynesian style market economy have openly defended the Chinese Government’s position. They claim that an over-priced property market is a small price to pay for preventing a sharp rise in unemployment.

I am not an economist. I cannot put forward a technical argument against this kind of fallacy. My friend Dfzh is not an economist either. However, he does represent a middle-class group in China. This group neither owns capital nor controls the State. Instead, they derive their income and status from service and management. Like many Chinese people in his socio-economic group, Dfzh has become increasingly disenchanted over the Chinese Government’s economic policy, as well as the CCP’s strong grip on power. He has regularly expressed to me his concern about a widening gap between the rich and the poor, and how this is creating social instability.

The problem with Friedman’s, and Obama’s, love affair with the corporate state is that it may not work as well as they think it will. Stratfor.com does not seem to agree with Friedman.

Security officials have warned that these out-of-work laborers could be a source of instability or, more ominously, a target for domestic or foreign instigators to exploit to undermine the Chinese government. The All-China Federation of Trade Unions has warned that China must be vigilant and prevent “hostile forces” from taking advantage of the new masses of unemployed migrants, while the Ministry of Public Security is sending work teams to the countryside and cities to assess social stability and stress factors. Chinese President Hu Jintao has led a chorus of Chinese officials calling on the People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Armed Police Force to be first and foremost loyal to the Party, and to be on alert for rising instability in China due to economic stresses and foreign and domestic hostile forces.

They are not that optimistic at all.

And with China’s economic problems (for which Beijing has assiduously sought to blame everyone but itself), cracks have begun to appear in the veneer of nationalism. They appear not only because of individual reactions to economic problems, but also as various provinces slip into local protectionism, seeking their own recovery over that of the nation.

I will take the advice of James Chanos, thank you. Friedman married money but Chanos made his own. Billions of it.

What’s with China

Tuesday, November 10th, 2009

There are growing suspicions that China may be heading for a collapse. The first inkling of this was in Stratfor.com’s chief George Friedman’s book, The Next 100 Years . My review of the book is here. Here is an excerpt:

His analysis of Russia and China seem very astute and correlate with other reliable sources such as the columnist “Spengler” with the Asia Times. I hadn’t thought about the population distribution of China until I looked at the map on page 90. He does not mention the very recent unrest in China although he predicts it. There have been 70,000 factories close in China in the past year with 20 million suddenly unemployed . I don’t believe this sort of insight is available at this price anywhere else.

Now we havethis warning .

“Purchases of U.S. consumers cannot be as dominant a driver of growth as they have been in the past,” Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner said during a trip to Beijing this spring. “In China, … growth that is sustainable will require a very substantial shift from external to domestic demand, from an investment and export-intensive growth to growth led by consumption.”

That’s one vision of the future.

But there’s a growing group of market professionals who see a different picture altogether. These self-styled China bears take the less popular view: that the much-vaunted Chinese economic miracle is nothing but a paper dragon. In fact, they argue that the Chinese have dangerously overheated their economy, building malls, luxury stores and infrastructure for which there is almost no demand, and that the entire system is teetering toward collapse.

A Chinese collapse, of course, would have profound effects on the United States, limiting China’s ability to buy U.S. debt and provoking unknown political changes inside the Chinese regime.

The China bears could be dismissed as a bunch of cranks and grumps except for one member of the group: hedge fund investor Jim Chanos.

Chanos, a billionaire, is the founder of the investment firm Kynikos Associates and a famous short seller — an investor who scrutinizes companies looking for hidden flaws and then bets against those firms in the market.

His most famous call came in 2001, when Chanos was one of the first to figure out that the accounting numbers presented to the public by Enron were pure fiction. Chanos began contacting Wall Street investment houses that were touting Enron’s stock. “We were struck by how many of them conceded that there was no way to analyze Enron but that investing in Enron was, instead, a ‘trust me’ story,” Chanos told a congressional committee in 2002.

Chanos has some disturbing data.

First, they point to the enormous Chinese economic stimulus effort — with the government spending $900 billion to prop up a $4.3 trillion economy. “Yet China’s economy, for all the stimulus it has received in 11 months, is underperforming,” Gordon Chang, author of “The Coming Collapse of China,” wrote in Forbes at the end of October. “More important, it is unlikely that [third-quarter] expansion was anywhere near the claimed 8.9 percent.”

Chang argues that inconsistencies in Chinese official statistics — like the surging numbers for car sales but flat statistics for gasoline consumption — indicate that the Chinese are simply cooking their books. He speculates that Chinese state-run companies are buying fleets of cars and simply storing them in giant parking lots in order to generate apparent growth.

Another data point cited by the bears: overcapacity. For example, the Chinese already consume more cement than the rest of the world combined, at 1.4 billion tons per year. But they have dramatically ramped up their ability to produce even more in recent years, leading to an estimated spare capacity of about 340 million tons, which, according to a report prepared earlier this year by Pivot Capital Management, is more than the consumption in the U.S., India and Japan combined.

This, Chanos and others argue, is happening in sector after sector in the Chinese economy. And that means the Chinese are in danger of producing huge quantities of goods and products that they will be unable to sell.

This is not the time for us to double the US national debt.

Korea

Wednesday, September 17th, 2008

I just finished reading Robert D Kaplan’s second book on his travels with US military forces all over the world. It’s called Hog Pilots, Blue Water Grunts and was published in 2006. Like the first volume, Imperial Grunts, it describes the US military and ruminates on the 21st century American Empire. Toward the end of Hog Pilots, he has an interesting section on Korea.

The Korea War is poorly remembered by most Americans younger than I am. Worse, it is apparently poorly remembered by younger South Koreans, who trend toward anti-Americanism in spite of the fact that we saved them from the grinding tyranny that their cousins in the north endure. Kaplan’s discussion concerns the future of what the US military in Korea call “The Kim Family Regime”, or KFR.

Kim Il Sung, founder of the KFR, was a nationalist patriot when Korea was occupied by Japan from 1905 to 1945. Kaplan compares him and his regime to Enver Hoxha, the Stalinist tyrant of Albania who fought the Germans in World War II with little help from the Allies. One unusual feature of the KFR was the succession of the son, Kim Jong Il. Most communist states did not see this passing down in families of the same zeal and control from parent to child. The children of Soviet leaders usually turned out to be spoiled sybarites. Not so in Korea where the regime resembles a crime family with several generations within the warlord culture that is part of it. Kim Jong Il has studied his enemies and succeeded in getting the US and South Korea to help prop up his regime in the 1990s when it was near collapse. One reason for the support was fear of the consequences of collapse.

The KFR nomenklatura has noted the consequences of the opening to the west in East Germany. It is unlikely that such a scenario could be managed. North Korea has a 1.2 million man army, much of which is not much better fed than the civilians. There is a 100,000 man special forces contingent that is well fed and well trained. In the event of war, they would use chemical weapons and would devastate the Seoul area, where nearly half of South Korea’s population lives. This is a great fear for the south and the huge KFR artillery emplacements aimed at Seoul reenforce the danger. What does the future hold ?

An expert, who outlined the current thinking about the KFR and its recent history, described the situation in five (or seven) phases.

Phase One- Resource depletion. That has gone on for years as forests are cut down and people are reduced to eating bark

Phase Two- Failure to maintain infrastructure in the country. That has gone on for years except for the military.

Phase Three- The rise of independent fiefdoms or warlords. That has occurred and contributes to corruption and the Mafia-like state.

Phase Four- The rise of such fiefdoms to the point that the KFR tries to suppress them. That was occurring in the 1990s and was relieved by subsidies from South Korea and China plus our own contributions in the farcical attempts to delay North Korean nuclear weapon development.

Phase Five- Resistance against the central government. That has not yet occurred. Kim Jong Il has been able to control his regime thus far although it is failing.

Phase Six- The regime fractures.

Phase Seven- New national leadership.

The conclusion was that the KFR had reached Phase Four in the 1990s but is now back to Phase Three, as of 2006 when the book was written. So far the regime is controlling the army and that is how it rules.

What are the likely scenarios if it collapses ?

Will the army fight for the KFR if there is a warlord rebellion ? Only the elite units are well fed. The civilian population, of course, is starving. The Romanian example can be used for guidance. A revolt by workers in 1987 was crushed by the army but another, by ethnic Hungarians in 1989, resulted in the army deserting the regime. A US army colonel Kaplan spoke to, felt the regime might collapse but the army remain intact. That might involve a combination of humanitarian relief and combat. An ugly situation and similar to Somalia but on a larger scale. The difference is that KFR has nuclear weapons and who knows who might get control of them ?

China is a huge player in all this. Koreans are united in their hatred of Japan, a cruel master for a half century. China has been propping up the KFR, all the while building infrastructure in Manchuria in anticipation of controlling at least part of North Korea when the collapse comes. They want the ports that will become available. There are thousands of North Korean refugees in China, most living as illegals but some may be a nucleus for a puppet state after collapse of the KFR.

Russia is weak in the East but has been a sponsor of the KFR which considers China a mixed blessing.

The possibility of an attack on South Korea as part of the death throes of the KFR regime has to be considered. It would make Iraq look like a softball game. There may even be an attempt to draw a reaction by the US by some action by the KFR, followed by a limited attack (possible shelling of Seoul) on South Korea to produce a schism between the US and its ally. It is an extremely dangerous situation.

And Kim Jong Il has had a stroke this week.

Post American world II

Monday, May 5th, 2008

Last week, I posted a link to a Fareed Zakaria essay, an excerpt from his new book, that looks at the future of America with both hope and some reservations. Today, he has another piece in Newsweek that is based on the other essay with some additions. He has one big problem, however. Zakaria is a supporter of the Democratic Party.

How does he reconcile this:
The global economy has more than doubled in size over the last 15 years and is now approaching $54 trillion! Global trade has grown by 133 percent in the same period. The expansion of the global economic pie has been so large, with so many countries participating, that it has become the dominating force of the current era. Wars, terrorism, and civil strife cause disruptions temporarily but eventually they are overwhelmed by the waves of globalization. These circumstances may not last, but it is worth understanding what the world has looked like for the past few decades.

with this:

Much of the criticism was initiated by Clinton. But it assumed a life of its own as Obama struggled to explain why a Canadian government memo quoted one of his aides as saying Obama’s opposition to NAFTA was for political show.

and this:

PITTSBURGH – Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton told manufacturers and union workers on Monday that her husband made mistakes related to the North American Free Trade Agreement that she plans to fix. Her comment came in response to a question by a union worker at a summit sponsored by the Alliance for American Manufacturing. The worker said President Clinton had tricked them when he championed NAFTA during his presidency.

Zakari has to deal with the paradox that the party he supports is isolationist and irresponsible on issues like  regulation and taxes. He comments in the article that London is now the world financial capital because of litigation and new laws like Sarbanes-Oxley that drive financial business away from our country. He comments that we have one of the highest corporate tax rates in the world, ignoring the fact that his favorite candidate for president has just said he would raise the capital gains and corporate tax rates even if they lost money for the government.

Zakaria has a valuable new book but he must reconcile his preferred party’s policies with the world that he sees. It will be a problem.

The Changing Face of China

Saturday, May 3rd, 2008

Reader and commenter, Allan, has written a review of a book on China titled, The Changing Face of China: From Mao to Market, by John Gittings. Here is his review of the book:

As one who spends a great deal of a time studyingstock charts and investment reports, I’ve found thatsometimes it pays to back away to get a larger senseof the global backdrop. Which is how I came to pull off the shelf a book titled The Changing Face of China: From Mao to Market by John Gittings. Heavier on the Mao than the Market, the theme of this work is focused on the transition from the peasant-centric world of 1949 to a nation that, by 2004, is as capitalistic as any western economy around. It’s a progression from an agrarian economy woefully inefficient, to a rumbling and awkward giant beset by corruption, pollution, growing discontent of the rural and urban poor, and long unfinished business with Taiwan, along with the Tibet and the Uighur Autonomous Regions.

For those who desire an insider’s view of this transition, Gittings glides in and out the parade of individuals who came to the forefront, often to be crushed by the constantly shifting personal and cultish politics of the Communist Party under Mao. And, although much emphasis is placed on the elites, he does not ignore the peasant classes who evolved into urbanized factory workers, technicians and engineers on one hand, and those who became the left behind illiterate laborers and rural poor on the other.

Gittings himself lived for years in China, having set up the Shanghai bureau of the Guardian while serving as that paper’s editor for China and East Asia from 1983-2003. The author to his credit avoids injecting his personal life experience into the narrative, yet the reader benefits from a modicum of quotes and anecdotes from a spectrum of everyday Chinese that are obviously derived from Gittings’ interviews and personal associations. One comes away from this book realizing that Communist China is not the authoritarian monolith as much as an ever evolving project. Even their classification as communist is blatantly erroneus. Their transition to a market economy is in its early stages despite the already global waves they create in global markets as producers and consumers. Since the last pages of the book toward the end of 2004, there’s been a China stockmarket boom and subsequent halving some would foolishly deem a collapse. There’s been massive foreign capital infusions greatly eclipsing what was once thought to be just as massive only at the beginning of the decade.

And with their country flung open there’s been concomitant strife and discontent skyrocketing along with the widening gap between the haves and the rest. The Chinese are out capitalizing the capitalists in even that regard. A market economy is a competitive beast. The SOE (state owned entreprise) as a production unit has been gutted and rejected, although a number limp along still in order to assure a more peaceful demise of this socialistic device, carrying with them mounds of bad debt that remain on the books of the state banks. And worse, the disassembling of hundreds of smaller, provincial SOE’s created much corruption as managers stripped them of assets and sold off the pieces for personal gain. While at the same time, tossing thousands upon thousands of workers into unemployed status.

Which also exposes a major problem for China going forward, as the Party, having buried the communist central planning model and turned their back on even the SOE’s, now faces a new onslaught of domestic issues from healthcare to education to enviroment, which Gittings enumerates at length in the final chapters. In essence, the Chinese were only trying to catch up with the world by transforming their government and their economy, but found themselves on the verge of overtaking all but the mightiest of the world leaders. Reading this book makes you wonder if they are anywhere near ready for all that entails. They are winging it, in my opinion. And rushing through stages that nations like the US spent decades working out.

Thanks, Allan.

Time magazine and why I don’t read it

Friday, April 18th, 2008

timeiwojima.jpg

UPDATE: Sandra Tsing Loh has the ultimate putdown for eco-snobs.

And yet there is the exquisite pleasure of eco-stalking those who used to eco-stalk you. “Good news!” I now enthuse to formerly smug Prius-driving friends of mine. “Right this second, a SolarCity engineer and I are studying a live Google Earth picture of your house! Little shade, south-facing — how ’bout I send them over for an estimate?”

It will be about $40,000. Next step ? Loss of interest.

Sniped a scientist friend of mine: “Instead of solar, why don’t you spend the money on something less self-aggrandizing — like offering $50 to anyone with an old refrigerator?”

There you are.

The utter fatuousness of the next Time magazine issue is staggering.     This interview shows just how far gone they are.

“We are experts in what we do.”
Veterans of Iwo Jima are not amused.

I have previously posted on some of the ignorance of economics so clearly demonstrated by the Time editor.

Here is more on the Time cover story that points out how the environmental activists are ignoring both science and economics.   The planet has been warming for the past 60 years but the warming trend may have ended or flattened out.

For example, satellite measurements of temperatures aloft  show no warming trend. Surface warming measurements may be affected by urban heat islands and, while NASA tries to avoid skewing data in the US, there has been a scandal in the placing of temperatures sensors in China. The scientist who was supposed to be ensuring that rapid urban development in China did not affect the sensors, was found to have falsified some of his data.

The data came from only 84 stations, 60% of which had no history whatsoever, and the report claims “details regarding instrumentation, collection methods, observing times … are not known.” Of the 35 remaining, over half had moved large distances (one station moving as many as five times) or had serious, known inconsistencies in the record. The report specifically contradicts Wang’s claims, concluding that “even the best stations were subject to minor relocations or changes in observing times and many have undoubtedly experienced large increases in urbanization.”Keenan immediately filed a formal allegation of fraud against Wang, a charge which is pending investigation at this time.

China is a big place with lots of land area and a rapidly industrializing society. How much did that development affect global warming ? Especially since the measurements were affected by urban heat islands. What we are seeing is a huge extrapolation of data from very shaky sources.

I’m currently reading a book titled The Deniers about scientists who are resisting the lockstep march of the anthropogenic global warming crowd and many who are paying a price.

The Chinese Olympics

Sunday, April 6th, 2008

This is not a good way to start the Olympic year with China. There already are heads of state boycotting. The Chinese are particularly concerned about face. This could get ugly.

Intellectual arrogance and money

Thursday, January 3rd, 2008

I ran across this story, about the fall of the New York Times, while reading another story about predictions for 2008. There is a common theme. Arrogance. I also think there is another theme; left wing politics. He is predicting that Google will face a near-meltdown due to a combination of renewed competition from rivals and complacency on the part of well insulated executives and owners. I’ve noticed a trend in Google searches that involve political topics. The top 10 or 20 search results are usually decidedly left wing sites. Some of this is probably due to gaming of the search engine. Determined groups can alter search results just as Ron Paul enthusiasts can dominate internet voting results. Google should be able to counter this by screening such activity. That they don’t seems to suggest they might share some of the sentiments of the gamers. Something similar has been seen at Amazon, and other online book sellers, when book reviews were modified or cover images altered. Others have also noticed this. My point has been that some news media, especially old media sources, seem to have decided to market to a segment of the political spectrum, rather than the public as a whole. The article I cited (from the ABC News website) agrees and also concludes that, as a business decision, it was a disaster. Is Google doing something similar ? Certainly it has made a devil’s bargain with China. Now, in spite of Google’s self filtering, China is redirecting searches to other systems. Thus, Google still loses the ad revenue they were trying to keep by selling their souls. Integrity is a word derived from “integer.” An integer is from a Latin word meaning “whole.” Is Google’s, or the New York Times’ integrity whole anymore ? Will it profit them to have given up integrity ?